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TIGER, tiger, burning bright
In the forests of the night,
What immortal hand or eye
Could frame thy fearful symmetry?

In what distant deeps or skies
Burnt the fire of thine eyes?
On what wings dare he aspire?
What the hand dare seize the fire?

And what shoulder and what art
Could twist the sinews of thy heart?
And, when thy heart began to beat,
What dread hand and what dread feet?

What the hammer? What the chain?
In what furnace was thy brain?
What the anvil? What dread grasp
Dare its deadly terrors clasp?

When the stars threw down their spears,
And water'd heaven with their tears,
Did He smile His work to see?
Did He who made the lamb make thee?

Tiger, tiger, burning bright
In the forests of the night,
What immortal hand or eye
Dare frame thy fearful symmetry?
William Blake
The belief in and the practice of magic has been present since the earliest human cultures and continues to have an important spiritual, religious and medicinal role in many cultures today. Magic is often viewed with suspicion by the wider community, sometimes practiced in isolation and secrecy.
The concept of magic as a category separate from religion was first widely recognized in Judaism, which derided as magic the practices of pagan worship designed to appease and receive benefits from gods other than
their own God.
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Magic or sorcery is an attempt to understand, experience and influence the world using rituals, symbols, actions, gestures and language. Modern Western magicians generally state magic's primary purpose to be personal spiritual growth. Modern theories of magic may see it as the result of a universal sympathy where some act can produce a result somewhere else, or as a collaboration with spirits who cause the effect.


Shakespeare
Thrice the brinded Cat hath mew'd
Thrice, and once the Hedge-Pigge whin'd
Harpier cries, 'tis time, 'tis time

Round about the Caldron go:
In the poysond Entrales throw
Toad, that under cold stone,
Days and Nights, ha's thirty one:
Sweltered Venom sleeping got,
Boyle thou first i'th' charmed pot

All. Double, double, toile and trouble;
Fire burn, and Cauldron bubble

Fillet of a Fenny Snake,
In the Cauldron boil and bake:
Eye of Newt, and Toe of Frog,
Wool of Bat, and Tongue of Dog:
Adders Forke, and Blinde-wormes Sting,
Lizards leg, and Howlets wing:
For a Charm of powerful trouble,
Like a Hell-broth, boil and bubble

All. Double, double, toil and trouble,
Fire burn, and Cauldron bubble.


By the pricking of my Thumbs,
Something wicked this way comes:
Open Locks, whoever knocks.

Macbeth, Act III, Sc. 5.
Magic as an innate talent
In most fantasy works, writers tend to depict magic as an innate talent, equivalent to perfect pitch, and there is wide variation on how spontaneously a person or other being with such a talent can use it. Talents that occur spontaneously usually need training in order to control their abilities. Those who use such spontaneously generated powers are usually not called magicians or similar terms, those being reserved usually for those who have to learn to wield magic.
Magic acquired through studying
Some works treat magic as a force that is acquired through studying books and tomes. Works which feature this concept usually include a school where magic is taught as a main setting.
Magic bestowed by another
Magic may also be gained by having it bestowed upon one by another, either through a pact with the devil or with other spirits, as is common in folklore. In some cases, the demon may only provide the means for the would-be wizard to learn magic, or the pact may be for the devil to do the magic on the wizard's behalf, forcing the wizard to compel it to act. Sword and sorcery heroes are depicted as fighting against this type of wizard, along with crazed cults where gods or demons give power to their followers.
Magic via enchanted objects
In some works, such as fairy tales, magic items either endow the main characters with magical powers or have magical powers themselves, and are often used as plot devices or MacGuffins to drive the plot of a story. Such items may be created by magicians or powerful beings, often in the distant past, but aren't possible to create at the present time of the story. Other fictional magical objects may have no explained past.
Wands and staves often feature in fantasy works, often in the hands of wizards.
Italian fairy tales put wands into the hands of the powerful fairies by the late Middle Ages[8] and the concept was transmitted to modern fantasy.
Magic divided into separate areas
In some works, types of magic are divided by color. As in folkloric and occult tradition, the white and black magic dichotomy may also exist in these works.
Magic via words, names, or language
Some works feature magic that is performed through using words to cast spells. Many works use this method without offering an explanation for it while others do,[9][10] with the explanation for it differing from one work to another.
Magical places
Some works feature magic that is tied to a certain area, such as an enchanted roses or an ancient battlefield.Such places are usually the homes of powerful magical beings. In these works, magic can only be accessed and performed in the area in question and runs out when all of the magic in the area is used up.